Tehran Capital of Iran

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Tehran the capital of Iran and Tehran Province

Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran. With a population of around 8.3 million, surpassing 14 million in another city, Tehran is Iran's largest urban area and city, and the largest city in Western Asia. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times Tehran was an insignificant village and part of the area of present-day Tehran was built by King (which in the Avesta occurs in the form of Rhaga, now a part of the city of Tehran, Which busy STI role took over after the destruction of the king by the Mongols in the early 13th century. in the 20th and 21st century, Tehran object of mass migration of people from all over Iran. the city is home to many historic mosques and several churches, synagogues and Zoroastrian fire temples.

However, modern structures, especially Azadi Tower and the Milad Tower have eaten to symbolize the city. Tehran is 29th in the world ranked by the population of Its metropolitan area. ALL Iranian history, the Capital've was moved often, and Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran. , Although a variety of unofficial languages are spoken to understand about 99% of the population and speak Persian. The majority of the inhabitants of the city are Persian speakers (Known_y called Pars / Fars), but there are also populations of Kurds (Kord), Azarbaijanis (Azari) Lurs (Lor) and Northern Iranians (Shomali). The majority of people in Tehran identity Themselves as Persians.

History

Tehran has been-hosting communities for more than 7,000 years. An important historical town in the area of present-day Tehran, is now taken up by him, is called the "King" Which is etymologically connected to the Old Persian and Avestan "Rhages" acquaintances. The city was a major area of the Iranian speaking Medes and Achaemenids. In the Zoroastrian Avesta Videvdad (i, 15), is Rhaga as the twelfth sacred place created by Ahura Mazda mentioned. [12] In the Old Persian inscriptions (Behistun 2, 10-18), Rhaga appears as a province. From Rhaga, Darius the Great sent reinforcements His father Hystaspes (Vishtaspa), the lowest was putting down the rebellion in Parthia (Behistun 3, 1-10).

The Damavand mountain located near the city are also in the Shahnameh as the place where Freydun limits the dragon devil Zahak. Damavand is important in Persian mythology and legendary events. Kyumars, the Zoroastrian prototype of human beings and the first king in Shahnameh, was said to have lived in Damavand. In these legends, the foundation of the city of Damavand was attributed to him. Arash the Archer, lowest sacrificed his body by. All his strength to the arrow that demarcated Iran and Turan, his arrow, from Mount Damavand The Persian legend was celebrated every year in the Tiregān hard. A festival is reported to have been in the city of Damavand on 7 Shawwal 1230 or in the Gregorian calendar, the August 31, 1815 instead During the festival, the people supposed to be the anniversary of the death Zahak. In the Zoroastrian legends, the tyrant Zahak finally be killed by the Iranian hero Garshasp before the end of days.

In some Middle Persian texts king is given as the birthplace of Zoroaster, modern historians generally, although the birthplace of Zoroaster in Khorasan. In one Persian tradition, the legendary king Manouchehr also was born in Damavand. During the Sassanid era, Yazdegerd III in 641 by King His final appeal issued to the nation before fleeing to Khorasan. King was a fief of the Parthians and Siyavakhsh Mihran the son of Mihran the son of Bahram Chobin, resisted the Muslim invasion. Due to the resistance ESTA When the Arabs conquered Rey, They ordered to destroy the city and to order Farrukhzad, rebuild the city. It también está a temple in Ray, That is one of the temple of Anahita, be the Iranian goddess of water. But after the Muslim invasion to Bibi Shahr Banu it has dedicated, eldest daughter of Yazdegerd III, and one of Husayn ibn Ali wives of the fourth leader of the Shia faith.

In the 10th century, King has been described in detail in the work of Islamic geographers. Despite the interest of Baghdad displayed in Rey, the number of Arabs was insignificant, and the population consisted of Persians of all classes. The Oghuz Rey stated in 1035 and to waste in 1042, but the city recovered in the Seljuks and Khwarazmian era. The Mongols devastated and Rey según Islamic historians of the era, virtually all Its inhabitants were cared massa complete. The city is mentioned in later Safavid chronicles as an unimportant city. The origin of the name "Tehran" is unknown. Tehran was also a village in the 9th century known, but was less well-known than the city of Rey Which flourished around in the early days. Najm ol Din Razi, known as Daya is the population of the King as 500,000 before the Mongol invasion. In the 13th century, following the destruction of the King of Mongols, many of its inhabitants escaped to Tehran.

In some sources of the early period, the city is mentioned as "Rhages" Tehran ". The city is later in Hamdollah Mostowfi the Nozhat ol Qolub (1340 written) mentioned as a famous village. Don Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo, a Castilian ambassador, was probably visit the first European to Tehran in July 1404 and remained a journey to Samarkand (now Uzbekistan) the capital of Timur, lowest ruled Iran at the time. one at that time, the city of Tehran was unwalled. in the early 18th century, Karim Khan Zand dynasty ordered a palace, and a government office in Tehran are built, possibly to declare the city his capital, but later moved his government to Shiraz. once again, in 1795, Tehran became the capital of Iran, Qajar king Agha Mohammad Khan If you crowned in the city.

Modern Times

From the 1920s to the 1930s, the city was essentially built from scratch under the rule of Shah Reza Pahlavi again. Reza Shah believed that ancient buildings such as large parts of the Golestan Palace, Tekieh Dowlat, the Toopkhaneh Place, the city fortifications and the old citadel among others should not be part of a modern city. They were systematically destroyed and modern buildings in the pre-Islamic Iranian style, such as the National Bank, Police Department, the Telegraph Office and Military Academy were built in their place. The Tehran Bazaar was in the middle and many historic buildings were divided demolished to build wide straight avenues in the capital. Many Persian Gardens also fell victim construction projects.

During the Second World War, Soviet and British troops entered the city. Tehran had visited the site of the Tehran Conference in 1943 by US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Soviet Premier Josef Stalin and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Between the 1960s and 1970s, Tehran was rapidly developing under the reign of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Modern buildings altered the face of Tehran and ambitious projects were taken into consideration in the following decades. Most of these projects, like Milad Tower, were continued after the revolution of 1979, when Tehran's urbanization had reached its peak, and the new government started many other new projects. During the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq War, Tehran was the target of repeated Scud missile attacks and air strikes.

Urban Development

Until the 1870s, the walled "arg" was (Royal Palace), the covered bazaar and "share stan" (where the masses lived in three neighborhoods of Udlajan, Chaleh Meydan and Sangelaj) Tehran. The first development plan of Tehran in 1855 emphasized the traditional spatial structure. Architecture, however, was an eclectic expression to reflect the new lifestyle. The second major planning exercise in Tehran was chaired by Dar ol Fonun. The map of 1878 included new city wall, in the form of a perfect octagon with an area of 19 square kilometers, which imitated the Renaissance cities in Europe.

In response to the growing social awareness of civil rights, on June 2, 1907, the first Parliament of the Persian Constitutional Revolution a law on local governance as "Baladieh Law" known. The second and third articles of the Law on "Baladieh community" or the City Council, a detailed description on topics such as the role of the works in the city, the members of qualifications, the selection process and the requirements for voting. After the First World War, Reza Shah immediately exposed to the Baladieh Act of 1907 and the decentralized and autonomous city councils were replaced by centralized / sectoralist approaches to governance and planning.

The changes in the urban structure began with the road widening Act of 1933, which served as the framework for the changes in all other cities. As a result of this fact, the traditional structure of the city was with cruciform cross roads create large roundabouts as the bazaar or Hussainia of the most important public spaces are replaced. As an attempt to create a network for easy movement of goods and vehicles in Tehran, the city walls and gates were demolished in 1937 and by broad streets cut through the urban fabric replaced. The new city map of Tehran in 1937 was strongly influenced by modernist planning and zoning pattern grid network.

The establishment of the Planning Organization of Iran in 1948 led to the first socio-economic Development Plan 1949 to 1955. These plans cover not only failed to slow the unbalanced growth of Tehran, but with the 1962 land reforms that Shah the "White Revolution" was the growth in Tehran further accentuated. To restore order in the city and to solve the problem of social exclusion, the first comprehensive plan of Tehran in 1968, was approved by the consortium of Iranian advisers, Abd Aziz Mirza ol Farmanian and the American firm of Victor Gruen Associates, identifies the city be problems associated with high density, including development of new suburbs, air and water pollution, inefficient infrastructure, unemployment and rural exodus. Finally, the whole plan was urged by the Revolution of 1979 and the subsequent Iran-Iraq war to the edge.

Climate

Tehran has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk). Tehran's climate is largely defined by its location, with the towering Alborz Mountains to the north and the central desert to the south. It can be generally described as mild in the spring and autumn, describe hot and dry in summer and cold in winter. Since the city is large, with significant height differences between the various districts, the weather is often cooler than in the flat south of Tehran in the hilly north. For example, the 17.3 km (10,7 km) Valiasr Street runs from the train station in Tehran than 1117 m (3665 ft) above sea level, in the south of the city on the Tajrish place, 1612 m (5289 ft) above sea level, in the north.

The height can also get up to 1,900 m (6,200 ft) at the end of Velenjak road in the north of Tehran. Summer is usually hot and dry with rain very little, but relative humidity is usually low and the nights are cool. Most of the light annual precipitation occurs particularly wet from late autumn to mid-spring, but no one month. The hottest month is July, mean minimum temperature 26 ° C (79 ° F); mean maximum temperature 36 ° C (97 ° F), and the coldest is January mean minimum temperature -1 ° C (30 ° F); mean maximum temperature 8 ° C (46 ° F).
Although Tehran is located in more temperate climate than in other parts of the country, the weather can be unpredictable sometimes hard. The record temperature is 43 ° C (109 ° F) and the record low is -17 ° C (1 ° F). On January 5 and 6, 2008, after years of relatively little snow, a wave of heavy snow and low temperatures, the city covered in a thick layer of snow and ice, forcing the Council of Ministers to officially declare a state of emergency and closure of the capital on January 6th and 7th Tehran has seen an increase in the relative humidity and the annual rainfall since the beginning of the 21st century. This is because the reforestation projects, with the enhancement parks and lakes most likely. The northern part of Tehran still abundant than the southern part. Will have described Tehran's climate, influenced some monsoon; the summer and winter are very dry, and the springs and waterfalls are not abundant, occurring at the main precipitation at these times.

Circumstances

In February 2005, heavy snow covered all parts of the city. Snow depth was 15 cm (6 in) in the southern part of the city and 100 cm (39 inches) in the north of the city. One newspaper said it was the worst weather in 34 years. 10,000 bulldozers and 13,000 urban workers employed to keep the main roads open. On February 3, 2014 in Tehran reached a heavy snowfall, especially in the northern parts of the city, with a height of 2 meters. Within one week to one another snowfall roads were impassable made in several areas in the north of Tehran, along with a wide range of temperature -8 ° C to -16 ° C. On June 3, 2014, severe thunderstorms with powerful microbursts created a haboob, which enveloped the city in sand and dust. Five people were killed and more than 57 injured. This disaster struck numerous trees and power lines down. It was between 5 and 6:00, plummteing temperatures of 33 ° C to 19 ° C in just one hour. The dramatic temperature drop was from wind gusts reached almost 118 km / h accompanied.

Demography

The city of Tehran (not to be confused with the larger, Tehran Metropolitan) in 2006. With its cosmopolitan atmosphere had a population of about 7.8 million, is home to Tehran different ethnic and linguistic groups from all over the country. The native language of the city is the Tehrani accent of the Persians, and the majority of people in Tehran identify as Persians. Historically, however, is the original dialect of the Tehran-Rey region not Persian, which is linguistically southwestern Iranian and originated in Fars (Pars) in the south of the country, but a (now extinct) Northwest Iranian dialect belonging to the Central Iran group. and Azerbaijanis about 25% [28] on 1/3 and other ethnic minorities include Kurdish, Arab, Baluch, Armenian, Bakhtiari, Assyrian, Talysh, Jews, and much more. Was performed according to a 2010 census by the Department of Sociology at the University of Tehran in many districts of Tehran in different socio-economic classes in proportion to the population of each district and socio-economic class, 63% of people in Tehran, born 98% know Persian , 75% identify themselves as ethnic Persian, and 13% have a degree of competence in a European language.

Tehran saw a drastic change in its ethno-social composition in the early 1980s. After the political, social and economic consequences of the Revolution of 1979 and the following years, some Iranian citizens, mostly Tehran Iran failed due to the pressures. Many Iranians pulled in European countries. The highest Iranian emigration has been to the United States, France, Germany, Sweden and Canada. With the start of the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) following the Iraqi invasion, a second wave of inhabitants fled from the city, especially during Iraqi air offensive on the capital. With most major powers secure Iraq at the time, economic isolation caused even more reasons for the inhabitants of the city (and the country) to leave. After everything had left, and after struggling to adapt to a new country and build a life, most of them never came back when the war was over. During the war, Tehran also received a large number of migrants from the west and the southwest of the country bordering Iraq.

The unstable situation and the war in neighboring Afghanistan and Iraq prompted a rush of refugees into the country who came in millions, with Tehran, a magnet for modest workers who helped the city to recover from war wounds, charging far less than local construction workers , Many of these refugees are returned with the assistance of UNHCR but there are still sizable groups of Afghan and Iraqi refugees in Tehran who are reluctant to leave, pessimistic about the situation in their home countries. Afghan refugees are mostly Persian-speaking Hazara or Tajiks, speaking a dialect of Persian, and Iraqi refugees, who are often mainly Shiite Mesopotamian Arabic-speakers of Iranian origin. The majority of Tehran's official Twelver Shia, which is also the state religion since the Muslim invasion of Iran. Religious minorities include followers of various sects of Sunni Islam, Mystic Islam, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and some of the Baha'i Faith. Tehran also has a very small number of the third generation of Iranian Sikh community, which has a gurudwara attended by Indian Prime Minister in 2012.

Capital Relocation

A plan to move the capital has been discussed many times in the past few years. In 2010, the government of Iran has announced that was "for security and administrative reasons" the plan, the capital city of Tehran completed to move. The Iranian parliament named Shahroud, Esfahan and Semnan as three main candidates to replace Tehran as the capital. There are plans to relocate 163 state-owned enterprises in the provinces and several universities from Tehran to damage, to avoid a possible earthquake. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad suggested that five million residents should migrate out of Tehran. As a starting point, Iranian authorities are relocating all defense industry from the capital.

Location and Subdivisions

Tehran county borders Shemiranat County in the north, Damavand county to the east, Eslamshahr, Pakdasht and Rey counties in the south, and Karaj and Shahriar counties to the west.

North Tehran

Northern Tehran is an affluent area of the city. It consists of several smaller districts of north-east to north-west, as Zaferanie, Jordan, Elahie, Kamranieh, Ajodanie, Farmanie, Darrous, etc. Qeitarie Northern Tehran as posh area where many liberal and intellectual Iranians often known with secular ideas live. However, in recent years more and more families from the traditional bazaar and government officials millionaires live there.

Shopping

Tehran has a wide selection of shops, from the traditional bazaars shopping area and modern shopping centers. The Grand Bazaar of Tehran and the Tajrish Bazaar is the largest traditional bazaars in Tehran. Have shopping districts such as Valiasr, Shariati Mirdamad shopping with a variety of different shops. Big centers such as tiraje, Hyper and smaller shopping centers such as Tandis, Golestan and Safavie are popular among residents of Tehran and visitors.Most of international brands and top class -Geschäften are in the northern and western parts of the city, and the rest of the stores are in all scattered areas of the city. Retail business in Tehran with new malls and shopping centers grows under construction. The largest shopping malls under construction are the Tehran Mega Mall, Kourosh Mall and smaller "luxury" shopping centers such as Zafaranie or Farmanie shopping center.

Administrative Subdivisions

Tehran's 22 districts, each divided with its own administrative center. Each of these areas are further divided into urban regions.

Food and Restaurants

Tehran has many modern and classic restaurants and cafes, serving traditional Iranian and cosmopolitan cuisine. One of the favorite dishes of the city is the Chelo Kabab (Kebab / Döner is originally a Persian word for grilled or roasted meat). Fast food is also very popular, especially among the younger generation. Pizza, sandwich and kebab shops make up the majority of the food outlets in the city.

Economy

Tehran is the economic center of Iran. About 30% of workers in the public sector in Iran and 45% of large industrial companies in the city and almost half of these workers are employed by the government. Most of the remaining workers factory workers, shopkeepers, laborers, and transport workers.

Some foreign companies are in Tehran over the Iranian government's relations with the West. But before the 1979 revolution many foreign companies were active in this region. Today many modern industries of this city include the manufacturing of automobiles, electronics and electrical equipment (such as Tejarat Aria Gostar Iranian Navid society by Iranian press considered a "major developer in the booming construction industry Tehran", weapons, textiles, sugar, cement, and chemical products. It is also a center for the sale of carpets and furniture. There is an oil refinery near Rey, south of the city.

Tehran has four airports. The Mehrabad International Airport, the international airport Tehran Imam Khomeini, the two assets. Doshan Tappeh Air Base is closed, and the former Ghale Morghi Air Base has been converted into an amusement park called Velayat Park. Tehran relies heavily on private cars, buses, motorcycles, and taxis, and is one of the most car-dependent cities in the world. The Tehran Stock Exchange, which is a full member of the Federation Internationale des Bourses de Valeurs (FIBV) and a founding member of the Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges, has. In recent years, one of the most successful stock exchanges in the world

Transport

Cars

According to the head of Tehran Municipality's Environment and Sustainable Development, Tehran has a capacity for nearly 700,000 cars but currently more than 3 million cars are on the roads. The automation industry has developed recently, but the international sanctions affect the production processes on a regular basis.

Airport

Tehran is served by two airports. Mehrabad Airport, an old airport which doubles as a military base is used for domestic and charter flights. This airport is located in the western part of the city. Imam Khomeini International Airport is located 50 km (31 miles) south of the city, handles all international flights.

Metro

Tehran claims to have one of the cleanest and most convenient metro systems, in terms of accessibility to different parts of the city, in the region. [Edit] The feasibility study and conceptual planning of the construction were started in the 1970s. In 2001, the first two of the eight projected metro lines opened. Now Tehran Metro has five operating lines and is 152 km (94 miles) long, with two other lines under construction.

Train

Tehran also has a central station with connecting services round the clock to various cities in the country. A Tehran-Europe train line is also running.

Bus

Tehran's transport system includes conventional buses, trolleybuses and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT). Buses have served the city since the 1920s. There are four bus terminals. Also links to the best prices The connections are on the south, east and west, and the case-Haqi Park Drive. The trolleybus system opened in 1992, built a fleet of 65 articulated trolleybuses from Skoda. This was the first trolleybus system in Iran and is just such a system in the country. In 2005, trolleybuses on five routes operating, all from Imam Hossein Square, 2. Two routes almost entirely located near Imam Hossein railway station of the Tehran Metro Line to the northeast is running in a separate bus lane in the middle of the wide carriageway (along Damavand Street), stopping only at purpose-built stations about every 500 meters, effectively making these routes trolleybus-BRT (but they are not referred to as such).

The other three trolleybus routes run south of Imam Hossein Square and operate in mixed traffic. Both route sections are served by limited-stop services and local (making all stops) services. A 3.2 km long extension of Shoosh place to Rah Ahan Square and the train station there in March 2010 opened Tehran Bus Rapid Transit was officially opened in 2008 by Tehran's mayor at that time, Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf. BRT has three lines with 60 stations in different areas of the city. As of 2011 GRT were a network of 100 kilometers (62 miles), transport of 1.8 million passengers daily. The city has also developed a bike-sharing system which includes 12 stations in one of Tehran city.

Highways and Roads

The metropolis of Tehran enjoys a huge network of highways (280 km) and the interchanges, ramps and loops (180 km). In 2007, there were 130 kilometers (81 km) of highways and 120 kilometers (75 km) of ramps and loops under construction. While the center of the city are the government ministries and headquarters, the shopping centers more towards Valiasr Street (formerly known Pahlavi road), Taleghani Ave, Ave, and Beheshti further north. Although administratively separate, Rey, Shemiran and Karaj are often considered part of the larger Tehran metropolitan area.

A number of streets in Tehran are named after international numbers:

Henri Corbin Street - downtown Tehran Edward Brown Street - near the University of Tehran Gandhi Street - northern Tehran Muhammad Ali Jinnah Expressway - West Tehran Iqbal Lahori Street - East Tehran Patrice Lumumba Street - West Tehran Bobby Sands Street - West side of the British Embassy Simón Bolívar Street - West Tehran Nelson Mandela Boulevard - north of Tehran

Air Pollution

Tehran suffers from severe air pollution and the city is often covered by smog making breathing difficult and causing widespread pulmonary diseases. It is estimated that about 27 people die each day from pollution-related diseases. According to local officials 3,600 people died in a month due to the hazardous air quality. [49] 80% of the pollution of the city is on the car. The remaining 20% is industrial pollution. Other estimates suggest that motorcycles alone account for 30% of air and 50% of sound pollution in Tehran. In 2007 Iran imposed fuel rations but the plan was met with little success in reducing pollution. In 2011, with the improvements in public transport and the increase in fuel prices due to the new subsidies reform plan, the government in the hope of being able to improve the problems of pollution and traffic.

Air pollution due to various reasons: Economical: most Iranian industries are located on the outskirts of Tehran. The city is also with old and aging cars which do not meet today's emission regulations to overrun. Furthermore, Iran's busiest airport, Mehrabad International Airport which, in the west of the city; Most people are then obliged to either private cars or hire taxis. This has created severe traffic congestion; Gasoline Quality: Because of the international sanctions, the Iranian government did establish their refineries (for petrochemicals) on sub-par gasoline. Geographical: Tehran is located in the north by the massive Alborz mountain range that is bound to stop the flow of the humid Caspian wind. As a result, the thermal inversion, the polluted air of Tehran begins commonly observed. The lack of humidity and clouds makes Tehran a very sunny city. The UV radiation then combined with the existing pollutants significantly raise the level of the ozone.

In fact one of the urban landmarks in central Tehran is a giant air quality is measured. Furthermore, the alleged poor quality of Iranian-made petrol also contribute to the pollution. However, the government is involved in a battle to reduce the air pollution. It is, for example, encourages taxis and buses, in order from gasoline engines to engines which convert operated with compressed natural gas. Moreover, since 1979, the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran a "traffic zone" (Tarhe Trafik), which set the city center during peak traffic times. Entering and driving inside this zone is only allowed with a special permit. The government is also trying to raise people's awareness about the dangers of pollution. One method that is currently being used, the installation of clogging indicator boards across the city to the current level of particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2) monitor, and carbon monoxide (CO ). The board also shows the pollutant standard index (PSI), which is a general indication of air quality based on the measurements of the above-mentioned five pollutants. The contamination indicator Boards classify the level of each pollutant either safe, hazardous or dangerous.

Education and Research

Tehran is the largest and most important educational center of the country. Today, there are a total of nearly 50 major colleges and universities in Greater Tehran. Since the establishment of Dar ol Fonun in the middle of the 19th century, Tehran has amassed a large number of universities. Some of these institutions have played a crucial role in the unfolding of Iranian political events. Samuel M. Jordan, the Jordan Avenue in Tehran is named, was also one of the founding fathers of the American College of Tehran. Among major educational institutions in Tehran, University of Tehran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Sharif University of Technology is the most prestigious universities of Iran. University of Tehran is also the oldest university in Iran and one of the oldest in Central and South Asia.

Allameh Tabatabai University Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic) KNToosi University of Technology, Shahid Beheshti University (Melli University), Kharazmi University, Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, University of Tarbiat Modarres University are Shahed and other high-ranking universities in Tehran Iran. Tehran is also home to Iran's largest military academy, and several religious schools and seminaries.

Sports

Tehran was the first city in the Middle East to host the Asian Games. The seventh Asian Summer Games 1974 was held with the participation of 2,363 athletes and officials from 25 countries. Tehran is also the site of Iran's football stadium on Azadi Sport Complex with 100,000 seats. Azadi Football Stadium is one of the largest in Western Asia and one of the largest in the world. Many of the top matches of Iran's Premier League are held here. In 2005, FIFA ordered Iran viewers in Azadi stadium may be limited because of a fatal crush and inadequate safety measures. Other stadiums in Tehran are Shahid Dastgerdi Stadium, Takhti Stadium, and Shahid Shirudi stage.

The Dizin ski resort is located in the north of Tehran in the Alborz Mountains. Tochal Ski Resort is the world's fifth-highest ski resort, at over 3730 m (12,240 ft) is the highest "7. Station". The resort was completed in 1976 shortly before the fall of the Shah. Here one must first ride the eight kilometer (five miles) long gondola lift which covers a huge vertical and is probably the longest in the world. The seventh station has three slopes. The resort's longest slope is the south side U shaped slope which goes from the 7th station to 5th station. The other two slopes are located on the north side of the seventh station. There are two parallel chair ski lifts that (ft 12,795) up to 3900 m near Tochal the tip (at 4,000 m / 13,125 ft), rising over the gondola 7th station. This altitude is higher than any of the European resorts.

From the Tochal peak offers a spectacular view of the Alborz range, including the 5610-meter-high (18,406 ft) Damavand, a dormant volcano. At the bottom of the lifts in a valley behind the Tochal peak is Tochal Hotel, at 3,500 meters (11,483 ft) altitude. From there a T lift takes skiers up the 3,800 meters (12,500 ft) Shahneshin peak, where the third slope of Tochal is. Tochal 7th station has skiing eight months of the year. But there are also some glaciers and year-round snow fields near Tehran where skiing began in 1938, thanks to the efforts of two German railway engineers. Today, 12 ski resorts operate in Iran, but the most famous are Tochal, Dizin and Shemshak all. Within one to three hours of Tehran

Football

Tehran is host to five major football clubs in Iran Pro League. Club Name: Rah Ahan FC Esteghlal FC Naft Tehran FC, Persepolis FC and Paykan. Tehran is also host to many small clubs. Club namves: Parseh Tehran FC, FC Niroye Zamini, Sanati Kaveh Tehran FC, Moghavemat Tehran FC, FC Oghab, Entezam Tehran FC, Naftoon Tehran FC

Architecture

Tehran is a relatively old city; as such, it has an architectural tradition unique to itself. Archaeological investigations and excavations in Tehran demonstrate that this area was home to civilizations as far back as 6,000 years BC in the village of Rey, which is now incorporated into the city. Tehran served only as a village to a relatively small population for most of its history, but began to take a considerable role in Iran after the capital in the late 18th century. Although the occurrence of earthquakes during the Qajar period and before, some buildings still from era of antiquity Tehran. Today Tehran is Iran's primate city, and has the modernization of infrastructure in the country; However, the gentrification of old neighborhoods and the demolition of buildings of cultural significance has caused concerns. The Azadi Tower is the longstanding symbol of Tehran. It was built to commemorate the 2500th anniversary of the Persian empire, and was originally called "Shahyad Tower"; after the revolution of 1979, changed its name to "Azadi Tower," meaning "Freedom Tower". The recently constructed Milad Tower may eventually replace the Azadi Tower as Tehran's new landmark.

The Milad complex sixth tallest tower in the world, several restaurants, a five-star hotel, a convention center, a World Trade Centre and an IT park. Traditionally a low-rise city due to seismic activity in the region, have modern high rise developments in Tehran, made to serve the growing population. There was in Tehran since 1830 no major quake, the tallest residential building in Iran is a 54-story building north of Youssef Abad district, the Tehran International Tower. It is architecturally similar to Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise community of Clark County, Nevada, United States. Relying on the principle of vertical rather than horizontal expansion of the city, the Tehran International Tower is bound to the north by Youssef Abad highway of Kordesstan Street and the West by Sheikh Bahai, on the south by Hakim Highway, to the East, all of which facilitate access to different parts of the city.

Tourism and Recreation

Tehran, as Iran's showcase and capital city, has a wealth of cultural attractions. The sun throne (also known as Peacock Throne) of the Persian Kings (Shahs) can be found in Golestan Palace. Some well-known museums National Museum of Iran, Sa'dabad locks Complex, Glassware and Ceramics Museum of Iran, The Carpet Museum of Iran, Tehran Under Glass painting Museum, Niavaran Palace Complex, and Safir Office Machines Museum. The Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art with works by famous artists such as Van Gogh, Pablo Picasso and Andy Warhol. The collection of these paintings were selected by the former Empress Farah Diba.

Tehran is also home to the Iranian Imperial Crown Jewels, also called the Imperial Crown Jewels of Persia, it is claimed to be the largest, most dazzling and valuable jewelery collection in the world. The collection includes a set of crowns and thrones, some 30 tiaras, numerous egrets, jewelry Occupied swords and shields, a vast amount of precious loose gems, including the largest collections of emeralds, rubies and diamonds in the world. It also includes other items of the Shah of Iran during the 2,500 years existence of the Iranian Kingdom. The Imperial Crown Jewels are still on display in the Iranian Central Bank in Tehran. Tehran International Book Fair (TIBF) known to the international publishing world as one of the most important publishing event in Asia.

Recreation

One of the most popular social activity, especially among the younger generation is cinema. Most cinemas in the city center. The Azadi Cinema was inaugurated in 2008 and is the largest theater in Tehran with ten theaters. The Cinema, Farhang the north is the only official theater, which foreign films in Tehran. The Tehran Zoologischer Garten (Eram Zoo) and Eram City Game also popular meeting points, especially for families with children. A new large zoo was also planned for 2010 Artists often mingle at the House of Artists. Shahr-theater was opened in 1962 and is the largest theater in Tehran. Tehran TV 1, Tehran Cinema TV, Omid TV and Tehran Show TV are among the most popular TV stations in Tehran. Tehran TV2, TV3 and Tehran sports were scheduled to be launched in 2012 to life.

The following table shows some places for outdoors activities in Tehran: Tochal Ski Resort, Darband trail, Chitgar Park, Niavaran Park, Saei Park, Daneshju Park, Goft-o-gu Park Mellat Park, Laleh Park, Jamshidieh Park, Shatranj Park, Darakeh trail, e Jahan Kudak Park, Azadi Sports Complex, Enghelab Sports Complex and Golf course Latyan lake, Lavizan Forest Park, Vardavard Forest Park, Khajeer National Park Kavir National Park, Lavizan, Tar lake, Amir Kabir lake, Lar Conservation habitat, Varjeen protected natural habitat,, Pardisan, Tangeh Savashi, Farahzad , e Sorkh Hesar Forest Park and Preserve wild Life zone.

Religious Centers

There are many religious centers around the city from old to newly built offices. There are mosques, churches and synagogues where followers of these religions to practice their faith.The Friday prayer in Tehran is usually from the University of Tehran, led by a Friday prayer leader and on special occasions by the Supreme Leader of Iran is hosted. Many religious people participate in the prayers, in which part of the city comes to a standstill.

Graffiti

Many types of graffiti in Tehran to see. Some slogans. Of government organizations that are painted mainly about the revolution of 1979, and some are works of art from the citizens that go with issues such as protest, freedom and peace During the protests of the Iranian presidential election of 2009, many graffiti work of people were made to support the Green Movement, and they were removed from the walls of the Basij forces. In recent years Tehran Municipality has been using graffiti in order to beautify the city. In addition, several festivals for the art of graffiti in Tehran were held. One of them was held in October 2014 and was organized by the Tehran University of Arts.

Events

The 7th Asian Games were held from September 1, 1974 to September 16, 1974 in Tehran. The Azadi sports complex was built for the games. The Asian Games were held in West Asia for the first time. Tehran hosts for 3010 athletes from 25 countries / NOCs, the highest number of participants since the start of the Games. The 1976 AFC Asian Cup was the sixth edition of the Asian Nations Cup, the football (soccer) championship Asia (AFC). It was held by Iran. The field of six teams was divided into two groups of three. Iran won their third title in a row, beating Kuwait 1-0 in the final. The first West Asian Games in Tehran November 19 to 28, 1997. The success of the games led to the creation of the West Asian Games Federation (WAGF) and the intention of hosting the Games held every two years.
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Tehran MDIC15JAN22A
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