Alborz

Iran Sightseeing Tours

Alborz Mountain Range

Alborz written as Alburz or Elborz is a mountain range in northern Iran, extending from the border with Azerbaijan along the western and South coast of the Caspian Sea and finally runs north-east and goes into the Aladagh Mountains in the northern parts of Khorasan. This mountain range is divided into Western, Central and Eastern Alborz Mountains. The western Alborz Range (usually as the Talish Mountains) runs south-southeast almost on the west coast of the Caspian Sea. The central Alborz (Alborz Mountains in the narrow sense) runs from west to east along the south coast of the Caspian Sea, during the Eastern Alborz runs in a northeasterly direction to the northern parts of Khorasan region southeast of the Caspian Sea. Damavand, the highest mountain in Iran and the Middle East, the Central Alborz Mountains.
Visit also Albors Mountains.

Etymology

The name Elbrus derived by metathesis of Alborz. The name is derived from the Alborz Hara Barazaitī, a legendary mountain in the Avesta. Hara Barazaitī reflects Proto-Iranian * Hara Bṛzatī. * Bṛzatī is the feminine form of the adjective * bṛzant- "high", the ancestor of the modern Persian boland (بلند) and Barz / Berazandeh, related to Sanskrit 'Brihat' (बृहत्). Hara be interpreted as a "clock" or "guards" * "protect" from an Indo-European root service. In the Middle Persian was Hara Barazaitī Harborz, Modern Persian Alborz, which is related to Elbrus.

Mythology

Zoroastrians can identify the area including the Estate of Peshyotan, and the Zoroastrian Ilm-e-Kshnoom sect identify Mount Davamand as the home of Saheb-e-Dilan ("Masters of the Heart"). In his epic Shahnameh, the poet Ferdowsi speaks of the mountains ", as if they create in India." This could be older usage, the name reflected for a variety of high peaks given and some even reflect up today, for example, Elbrus in the Caucasus and Mount Elbariz (Albariz, Jebal Barez) in the Kerman region over the Strait of Hormuz. Only in the 19th century, a peak in the northernmost area was in the Hindu Kush system, south of Balkh, was recorded as the Elburz Mountains in British Army cards. All of these names reflect the same Iranian language compound and an identification of the legendary Mount Hara Bərəzaitī of the Avesta share.

Geology

The Alborz mountain range forms a barrier between the Caspian Sea and south of the Iranian plateau. It is only 60 to 130 km wide and consists of sedimentary series from the Upper Devonian to Oligocene, mainly Jurassic limestone over a granite core. Continental conditions with respect to sedimentation are by thick Devonian sandstone and shale, the resist through Jurassic coal seams. Sea conditions are Carboniferous and Permian strata, which are composed mainly of limestone, resist. In the eastern Alborz Mountains, the far eastern part of the Mesozoic is formed (mainly Triassic and Jurassic) rocks, while the western part of the eastern Alborz range is primarily of Paleozoic rocks. The Precambrian rocks can be found Alborz range located mainly in the south of the city of Gorgan in the southeast of the Caspian Sea and in much smaller portions in the central and western parts of central.

The central part of the Central Alborz range consists mainly of the Triassic and Jurassic rocks formed, while the northwestern part of the series is mainly the Jurassic rocks. Very thick beds of Tertiary (mainly Eocene) green volcanic tuffs and lavas are found mostly in the southwest and south-central part of the range. The far northwestern part of the Alborz, which is the so-called Western Alborz range or the Talish Mountains is especially the Upper Cretaceous rocks with a strip of Paleozoic rocks and a band of Triassic and Jurassic rocks in the southern parts, both in a northwest-southeast direction. As the Tethys was closed and the Arabian plate collided with the Iranian Plate and was against them is pressed, and the clockwise movement of the Eurasian plate with the Iranian Plate and their final collision, the Iranian Plate from both sides has been pressed.

The collisions eventually causes the wrinkles of the upper Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Paleogene rocks and Cenozoic (especially the Eocene) volcanism that form Alborz Mountains, especially in the Miocene. The Alpine orogeny therefore began with Eocene volcanism in the southwest and south-central parts of the Alborz and sat down with the uplift and folding of the older sedimentary rocks in the north-western, central and eastern parts of the area in the orogenic phases of significance that originate from the Miocene and Pliocene epochs.

Ecoregions, flora and fauna

While the southern slopes of the Alborz Mountains are generally semi-arid and arid with irregular and low rainfall, the northern slopes of the area in general, especially in the western parts of central Alborz are wet. In the southern slopes of the Elburz range or forest-steppe ecoregion are higher dry with few trees. Juniper is the most common tree in the inaccessible areas and altitudes, and shrubs are pistachios, maple, and almond. But in the northern slopes, the Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests ecoregion is lush and wooded.

The natural vegetation of this region is growing in different zones: the Hyrcanian forests at the lowest level; Beech forest in the central zone; and oak forests at higher elevations. The wild cypress is the predominant form of vegetation in some valleys, while olive trees growing in the western valleys of central Alborz near the Sefidrud. The ibex, foxes, deer, wild boars, bears, leopards, wolves, buzzards, Goose, woodpeckers, vultures and eagles are among the important animals and birds in the Alborz Mountains found.

Ski Areas

Due to the large snowy winters of the Alborz Mountains, there are several ski resorts in different places of the area. Some are of the opinion that some of them are among the best in the world. Some of the most important are Dizin, Shemshak, Tochal and Darband.

Mountains, peaks, mountain lakes and attractions

Damavand Amol Mazandaran
Tochal mount and summit
Tangeh Savashi, A popular attraction
Alam Kuh
Alamut
Dizin
Ovan lake

List of Iranian four thousand mountains

1 Alam Kūh
2 Azad cow
3 Damāvand
4 Do Berar
5 Do Khaharan
6 Ghal`eh Gardan
7 Gorg
8 Kholeno
9 More Chal
10 Mīšīneh Marg
11 Naz
12 Shah Alborz
13 Sīālān
14 Tochal
15 Varavašt

Rivers
1 Alamut
2 Chalus
3 Do Hezar
4 Haraz
5 Jājrūd
6 Karaj
7 Kojūr
8 Lār
9 Nūr
10 Sardab
11 Seh Hazar
12 Shāh Rūd

cities:
1 Āmol
2 Chalus
3 Karaj

Other:
D Dizin
E Emāmzādeh Hazem
K Kandovan tunnel

Dams
Latian Dam
Lār Dam
Read more in Wikipedia.

Damavand Iran Mount Damavand Iran

Alborz Mountains MDIC15JAN01K
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